improved communication and interpersonal skills. greater self-acceptance and self-esteem. ability to change self-defeating behaviors/habits. better expression and management of emotions, including anger.... read more ›
Counseling allows individuals to explore their feelings, beliefs, and behaviors, work through challenging or influential memories, identify aspects of their lives that they would like to change, better understand themselves and others, set personal goals, and work toward desired change.... see details ›
Counseling provided by trained professionals can make a profound impact on the lives of individuals, families and communities. This service helps people navigate difficult life situations, such as the death of a loved one, divorce, natural disasters, school stress and the loss of a job.... see details ›
Counseling is a process that involves two people, one person who needs a solution to their problem, and the other person can be the expert or psychiatrist. Counseling helps the person get solutions for problems related to anxiety, depression, family, relationship, divorce, etc.... read more ›
Counseling is a collaborative effort between the counselor and client. Professional counselors help clients identify goals and potential solutions to problems which cause emotional turmoil; seek to improve communication and coping skills; strengthen self-esteem; and promote behavior change and optimal mental health.... see details ›
Facilitating behaviour change. Improving the client's ability to establish and maintain relationships. Enhancing the client's effectiveness and ability to cope. Promoting the decision-making process and facilitating client potential.... view details ›
These include: age, culture, marital status, education, economics, profession, and the country or society itself. Understanding the gender roles in the community can help you to better understand the situation of the women and men you counsel, and thus improve your counselling interactions.... read more ›
Effective counselling requires good communication but there are potential barriers to communication in counselling such as: lack of understanding of what counselling is. personal pride (the potential client feeling it should be possible to sort out their own difficulties) denial/distortion of problems.... view details ›
Disadvantages: Individual therapy is typically more expensive. Clients have less opportunity to model the behavior of an individual with similar problems who has successfully seen improvement. Some individuals find focusing on themselves difficult and struggle to effectively communicate their emotions.... view details ›
The major aim of Guidance Counseling Services is to encourage students' academic, social, emotional and personal development. To reach this aim, guidance counseling services help students get to know themselves better and find effective solutions to their daily problems.... continue reading ›
- Students can discuss issues with their peers, who may better understand student issues.
- Students can learn from others who have similar problems. ...
- Students can gain multiple perspectives from other group members.
Counselling can help you become a better person and grow in new ways. It's additional input that can spark your development both personally and professionally. In counselling, you can work on developing the traits and behaviours that you aspire to have.... see details ›
The following are the most common types of counselling: Marriage and Family Counselling. Educational Counselling. Rehabilitation Counselling.... view details ›
1. Opening: The initial portion of the counseling process is one of the most important because it provides both counselor and client the opportunity to get to know each other. It also allows the counselor to set the tone for the therapeutic relationship.... see more ›
Review the science behind the benefits of counseling in a range of settings.
Improving communication between the school and parents is another benefit of school counseling.. Improved communication and social skills Support network and social encouragement Relatability and improvements in healthy behaviors Increases in perspective due to diversity in group dynamics Affordability of care (Thimm & Antonsen, 2014) Safe space to develop assertiveness and appropriate boundaries through self-insight. Delivering counseling in a group setting is usually more cost effective, and knowing that it also offers increased family cohesion makes it an empirically backed approach to treatment for many mental health struggles.. Reduced conflict and improved management of anger can be a benefit of family counseling.. Improvement in perceived familial support is an additional benefit of family counseling.. Fourth, improvement in interpersonal relationships is correlated with a reduction of symptoms of depression and anxiety through counseling.. Finally, when offered interventions in positive psychology, improved wellbeing can also be a benefit of counseling for depression and anxiety.. Improvements in overall health and wellbeing can be a benefit of counseling as well.
Counseling treats mental health conditions, helping individuals & groups.
Today, one in five American adults has a mental health condition, and research shows that these conditions can be effectively treated (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018).. Not only can counseling treat mental health conditions, it can also help individuals, groups, organizations, and society optimize wellbeing.. A systematic review of 30 studies examining the effectiveness of counseling/therapy treatments found that psychological treatment of depression was more effective than traditional treatment (pharmacological) or no treatment at all (Linde et al., 2015).. While CBT consistently demonstrates the most effective results at relieving symptoms of anxiety, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy , mindfulness, and talk therapy have also been used as counseling techniques to effectively reduce anxiety (Arch & Craske, 2008).. Once OCD was seen as an anxiety disorder, early behavioral therapy such as aversion therapy and exposure therapy were developed to treat the condition.. One study found that psychological treatment among individuals with chronic physical conditions in small group settings decreased medical care costs by $10 for every $1 spent (Lorig et al., 1999).. Group counseling is a great option for therapy and can offer unique benefits that individual counseling may not be able to provide.. Group counseling is just as effective as individual treatment for most conditions, as long as the group is specific to the focus of treatment (Erford, 2018).. The benefits of group counseling include the following:. Groups can teach individuals about themselves.. School counselors are equipped to address these needs, and the benefits of counseling in educational settings go far beyond treating mental health problems.. Family therapy and couples counseling are important to help both the family unit and individual members within it.
This research has been study the counselling effect on PG students’ mental health. The population were postgraduate students of VNSGU, Surat, who came for counselling sessions to the psychological counselling centre. They are 108 Students. From this population, 30 students were selected with random sampling method. Questionnaire made by researcher and Unstructured interview were used for data gathering. Information analysed with the qualitative method. Results showed that counselling is much helpful for postgraduate students. They become more relax; can focus on their goal, aware about their strength and weakness. Students can plan their schedule according to the goal. They learn how to manage their emotions. This research showed that counselling services should be provided in every educational institute. A qualified person should be appointed for counselling to students and when they need help, he should be available for students so they can freely consult their counsellor.
This research has been study the counselling effect on PG students’ mental health.. The main objective of the present research is to study the effect of psychological counselling on the mental health of postgraduate students.. There were two types of counselling; individual counselling and group counselling.. A counsellor should be appointed for counselling to students and when they need help, he should be available for students so they can freely consult their counsellor.. The counselling services to students and their normal self are good predictors for mental health promotion.
When seeking therapy, knowing what a good counselor looks like and how therapy is most effective can help you in your search.
Plus, it can feel overwhelming to find a counselor if you’re in the midst of a difficult experience or having symptoms of a mental health condition.. If you’re seeking counseling, it can help to know what makes a good therapist and how to make the most of your sessions.. So, you might find therapy more effective when you:. show up to almost all your appointments, and on time are honest with your therapist , even about what you’re afraid to say give your therapist feedback about the therapy process, including what you find helpful and not so helpful work with your therapist to set goals for change work on the skills you’re learning in therapy outside of therapy keep going to therapy, even when it becomes difficult or uncomfortable. That might mean talking with your therapist about changing your goals or finding a different therapist that’s a better match for you.
The effectiveness of mental health counseling.
In the counseling profession. there is a great deal of discussion and debate about the effectiveness of. counseling and psychotherapy.. The one constant. that appears in all of this frenzy of research deliberation is that almost. all of the literature and research concludes that counseling and psychotherapy. are effective.. The effectiveness of counseling. has been examined in several studies and has been shown to be generally effective.. Client outcomes are most often determined by client variables such as chronicity,. severity, motivation, defenses, acceptance of responsibility for change, and. complexity of symptoms other than by counseling or individual counselor variables. (Anderson & Lambert, 1995; Safran, Segal, Vallis, Shaw, & Samstag,1993).. Hemmings' work demonstrated. that the number of participants who rated counseling as helpful to very helpful. ranged from 88% (Clwyd,1996) and 75% (Baker et al, 1998) down to 66% (Gordon,. 1995).. Hemmings examined the study of Kingston & Richmond (1997) where over. half gave counseling the maximum rating for helpfulness and it was noted that. the high ratings were not dependent on the counselor and there were not significant. differences between practices.. Lipsey & Wilson (1993) document a strong tendency, in their meta-analysis,. of the positive effects of counseling above the placebo effect threshold.. Smith, Glass, & Miller (1980) conducted a meta-analysis of 475 psychotherapy. trials and reported that psychotherapy was effective; it was estimated to. have an average effect size of 0.85 for all types of therapy, clients and. outcomes.. Behavioral techniques utilizing systematic exposure. have been shown to be very effective and superior to other interventions when. treating phobic disorders such as agoraphobia, simple phobias, and compulsions;. however, in the case of social phobias, generalized anxiety disorders, or. some combination of these exposure treatments are still effective but not. as effective or uniquely effective (Emmelkamp, 1994).. Self-reported outcomes, follow-up studies, and efficacy studies. all show a generalized trend that indicates a significant success rate for. counseling and psychotherapy.. There is still a great deal of research that. needs to be conducted to determine specifics about determination of the optimal. approaches and interventions to be utilized within the larger framework of. successful counseling and psychotherapy.. Counselling. in primary care: A systematic review of the research evidence.
This session focuses on some of the different factors that can affect or influence counselling for MNH. These include the larger social and cultural context, including socio-economic conditions, cultural and social norms, gender roles, and household decision-making processes.
The term ‘counselling context’ does not refer here to the physical location where counselling takes place (which we call the counselling environment) but relates to the social, cultural, economic, religious and political factors of the place where you work, and the communities in which the people you will counsel, live.. Discuss with women, their families and others in the community those practices which are harmful or which could endanger the health of the mother or newborn.. Understanding the gender roles in the community can help you to better understand the situation of the women and men you counsel, and thus improve your counselling interactions.. Gender roles can also greatly affect health behaviour and the sexual and reproductive health of men and women in your community.. What can you as a health worker do, in a counselling session or during your interactions with the community, to have an impact on gender roles so that women can better care for themselves and their babies?. Counselling around sexuality issues should always start with you familiarizing yourself with the cultural and religious context and the specific information needed around the sexuality practices of each community.. This changes as pregnancy progresses: during the first part of pregnancy when women are often feeling nauseated and sick their desire is typically reduced; in the middle part of pregnancy women often feel much better and therefore their desire returns to normal; in the last part of pregnancy women feel very uncomfortable due to the size of the baby they are carrying, they are tired and their interest in sex decreases.. It is useful for the facilitator to acknowledge the importance of counselling on issues of sexuality and the potential benefits to pregnant women as outlined in the handbook and to consider that local custom and taboos, sometimes influenced by gender discrimination may be a potential barrier to providing women with important counselling.
Review the science behind the benefits of counseling in a range of settings.
Meta-analyses have brought empirical proof of the benefits that many experience from mental health counseling (Brown, 1987).. Positive psychology studies have empirically proven that specific interventions increase happiness and decrease depressive symptoms (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005).. Reduction in chronic pain has been a proven benefit of interventions in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT; Ehde, Dillworth, & Turner, 2014).. Counseling in schools offers the following benefits:. Another benefit of marriage counseling is in the area of emotional avoidance.. Counseling in couples also allows focusing on a relationship’s strengths.. Relationship counseling can improve wellbeing in the couple themselves, but also the people around them, including children.. Next, studies have shown that decreased depressive and anxiety symptoms are evident in effective counseling.. The correlation between the reduction of symptoms and improvement in other areas is important to note.. Fourth, improvement in interpersonal relationships is correlated with a reduction of symptoms of depression and anxiety through counseling.. These improvements lead to more growth in other areas of personal development.. Finally, when offered interventions in positive psychology, improved wellbeing can also be a benefit of counseling for depression and anxiety.. Improvements in overall health and wellbeing can be a benefit of counseling as well.. Journal of Family Psychology, 19 (1), 28–39.. Principles of empirically supported interventions in counseling psychology.
How does the professional setting of a counsellor affect their work? Well as always, I must begin by stating there are no absolute answers to this question. Having said that, there are most definitely some regularly seen features in different counselling settings that affect the work that is done, and this blog will address those that are most common. Let’s start then with a quick description of the settings themselves.
How does the professional setting of a counsellor affect their work?. There is no question however that working as a counsellor/therapist for a counselling service is very different than it is for those who, like myself, work entirely independently.. Even though I’ve not worked in a counselling service setting for nearly 20 years now, I am a professional supervisor for a number of counsellors/therapists who do work in this way (and this is a weekly reminder of why I no longer wish to!. The service itself is responsible for the administration of the counselling department and all of the “outside of the room” work.. It is the service’s responsibility for promoting itself, finding clients for the counsellor, booking initial sessions, keeping track of overall caseloads for counsellors, maintaining client details, organising the venue, ensuring that all counselling is performed in a safe environment and pretty much all other aspects of the practice apart from actually sitting with a client and helping them with their difficulties.. Theoretically, this means that as all of the behind the scenes work is done for them, these counsellors have much more of themselves available to give to those they are assisting.. Sadly, this means it is possible to not be particularly good at any aspect of the role of professional counsellor and yet remain with a counselling service for years.. While it may appear at first glance that we independent counsellors have our hands full of administrative duties from outside of the counselling room that could possibly affect our ability to help our clients, for the true professional therapist the opposite is true.. I say this because even though I must spend a certain amount of time outside of the counselling room organising files, keeping my books straight, ensuring I’ve done an appropriate level of Continuing Professional Development hours each year or any of the other myriad of tasks a small business must complete, I know all of these things are done, and have been done properly.. Essentially, as an independent professional therapist the fact that I know all of the “outside of the room” work has been done properly significantly increases my ability to be entirely present in the room for my clients.. As stated at the beginning of this blog however, there are no absolutes in this, and I have no doubt there are some brilliant staff working in counselling services doing a fantastic job at keeping their particular service running smoothly, just as there are likely to be some independent therapists who are more than a bit chaotic behind the scenes.
What is counselling? Read more about the different types of counselling, what to expect from sessions and how the different therapies may help you.
Sometimes, the term ‘counselling’ is used to refer to talking therapies in general, but counselling is also a type of therapy in its own right.”. For some, telephone counselling offers a helpful alternative to face-to-face counselling.. Some people benefit from speaking openly to a counsellor about their feelings to help ease the process and resolve any remaining issues they may have.. This type of therapy is, therefore, best used with those looking to change their behaviour, for example, sufferers of addiction or those with a phobia.. What can counselling help with?. Types of therapy. What to expect from a counselling/therapy session. The counselling process
Good counseling can help clients deal with almost any issue, but unethical counseling has the potential to do more harm than good.
Good counseling can help clients deal with almost any issue, but unethical counseling has the potential to do more harm than good.. What are ethics in counseling?. These rules try to protect the client from any potential harm that could come from the counseling process.. The counseling relationship is unique, in that the counselor shares relatively little about themselves, but listens attentively to the client’s concerns and fears.. Unfortunately, if the counselor’s own needs for friendship or connectedness are not being met then it is possible that the counselor will share personal information, or try to meet the client in social situations.. Ethical guidelines also protect the counselor’s interests in counseling by defining the limits of the counseling relationship.. They serve to help the counselor decide when there is a safety risk to the client, and when further support may be needed.. Other less obvious risks to the counselor involve basic counseling norms.. These guidelinesis protects the counselor from having to make the decisions on their own without support.. Ideally, if professional decisions are made with the support of preexisting ethical guidelines, the counselor can fall back on support from fellow professionals when a judgment call made in the counseling room is called into question.. Although it may be difficult, common counseling ethical guidelines also talk about how to seek support in times when the client may have an issue with the counselor.
This article will examine in detail the overall efficacy of school counseling in terms of positive impact on students in a number of key areas.
School counselors work with students to address an array of issues, offering everything from academic support to college and career counseling, as well as personal counseling.. The American Counseling Association published an article in collaboration with the Center for School Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst that offers concise summaries of three studies that all point to the overall effectiveness of school counseling in terms of generating positive student outcomes in many areas.. The study authors found that counseling interventions have a positive effect on students by a measurement of .30.. It is useful to take an in-depth look at common concerns to see how counseling can make a positive impact:. Support throughout the college admissions process. Many school counselors will help students with the college application process, or if college is not a viable option for a student, school counselors can offer career counseling.. Gilchrist-Banks explained that stress for students during the college admissions process also can be caused by parental expectations of where they should apply.. According to an article published by the American Counseling Association, a number of studies have shown that students tend to perform better academically when there are strong counseling programs in place at their school.. For example, the article cited the aforementioned 1997 study from Lapan, Gysbers and Sun, which found that high school students tend to achieve higher GPAs at schools with better counseling resources.. Pringle explained that school counselors, while offering help and guidance for a range of issues, including stress, bullying, home life problems and more, are unable to offer therapy: “Sometimes there’s a myth that we do therapy in schools, and that’s not it.” School counselors are qualified, however, to recognize potential mental health problems and suggest referrals to qualified therapists, if necessary.. An article from the American Counseling Association cited an article from R. Jones published in the American School Board Journal that found that the work of school counselors has been shown to reduce the likelihood of suicide among student populations.. An effective first step toward that career goal is an application to Bradley University’s online Master of Arts in Counseling – Professional School Counseling program .
By: Sherin Pathickal, PharmD Candidate c/o 2016, Rahul Patel, PharmD Candidate c/o 2017, and Sierra Swaby, PharmD Candidate c/o 2020
Each patient deserves and should have time with the pharmacist before they leave the pharmacy, so that they understand why they are taking the medication and how it should be taken, which will increase medication adherence.. A study published by Ohio State University observed how pharmacists and patients engaged in communication about personal health within an independent pharmacy setting.. Persistence in terms of whether or not the patients filled their prescription within the allotted period of time was also higher for the intervention group with 43.9% filling on time as compared to the 38.2% in the comparative group (p=0.05).. Although further studies need to be conducted using larger populations and various disease states, this study gives credence to the fact that pharmacists play an influential role in patient adherence and treatment management.. It not only leads to a clearer understanding about questions and concerns each patient may have, but also plays an important role in underlining the necessity of medication adherence.
Anyone who has flown on an airplane and listened to the flight attendant before takeoff has been cautioned what to do in the event the oxygen masks fall from the ceiling: Put on your own mask first before trying to help someone else.
“Counselors who neglect their own mental, physical and spiritual self-care eventually run out of ’oxygen’ and cannot effectively help their clients because all of their energy is going out to the clients and nothing is coming back in to replenish the counselors’ energy.”. Elizabeth Venart, a private practitioner in Ambler, Pa., who served on the ACA Task Force on Counselor Wellness and Impairment, says offering empathy is imperative in the profession, but this also opens the counselor up to feeling the client’s pain.. When counselors can view their emotional responses to their work as an expected part of empathic engagement rather than something they are doing wrong, they are more likely to seek support, talk about stress with colleagues and engage in self-care practices to support their overall wellness.”. Wellness is especially important because counselors are one of the primary instruments in their own work, says Gerard Lawson, associate professor of counselor education at Virginia Tech.. “It’s impossible to separate who I am as a person from the work I do as a counselor,” says Lawson, who chaired the ACA Task Force on Counselor Wellness and Impairment.. When Lawson worked as a counselor in an inpatient setting, he remembers rehashing each day in his mind during the car ride home from work.. “For example, many counselors I have worked with, as well as counselors I have had as clients, do not understand the difference between emotional attachment and empathy.. “In addition, counselors may have a false belief that they should be able to heal themselves, that their training as a counselor somehow means they don’t need outside support and that the wellness practices that work for everyone else are somehow too simple for them or just not necessary.”. Having a supportive environment can help immensely in improving counselor wellness, says Lawson, who recommends that counselors talk with colleagues about their personal needs and struggles and solicit support for the changes they are trying to make.
A type of talk- therapy that helps you overcome life challenges and restore lost confidence enabling you to lead an overall satisfying life.
In the 1940s and 1950s, the Veterans Administration established an area of expertise known as “counselling psychology” and the APA established Division 17 (now also known as the Society for Counselling Definition Psychology).. You might ask, a counsellor performs counselling duty to clients and people who have sought counsel over specific issues.. Others work in private practise, offering counselling, and consultation to persons, groups, families and organisations.. Genetic counselling is the process of providing advice to families and individuals, it is performed by qualified genetics experts with clinical training in order to improve awareness and layout a strategy to fix the medical and psychological ramifications of the contribution of genetic makeup to specific illnesses.. A genetic counsellor is the primary consultant in charge of counselling you and your family -if need be- about a potential tendency of a disease and determining whether or not a genetic test is required.. As such words, where conventional counselling methodologies focus on the psychological effects of problems and behaviour patterns, holistic counselling assesses and treats issues and habits from the somatic and spiritual point of view.. It has evolved into an approach that assists a holistic licenced counsellor in considering what diagnostic and intervention possibilities may be helpful, in addition to their training in counselling psychology and various types of therapy.. Apart from the holistic and genetic counselling, there some other sub categories of counselling such as:. Behaviour counsellors may use various types of counselling therapy to help clients change their habits, but the end goal is always the same.. Marriage and family counseling assists people with these issues.. Substance abuse counseling is a type of counselling that assists individuals in treating and overcoming their substance addictions.. A skilled couples counsellor can assist you and your partner in further developing correspondence, closeness, and trust, all of which are essential components of a solid long haul relationship they can also help answer the question common to sceptics, “Does counselling help?”.. If you’re a victim of abuse or are still bearing the effect of past abuse, it is worth knowing that there are counsellors who are trained to listen to you and help you overcome such feelings so you don’t have to go through them alone as that is the purpose of counselling.. To find out more information about counselling, feel free to type “what is counselling” in your respective search engine.
One-on-one counseling is a good option to have, but sometimes, group counseling may be the solution you need. Why is counseling in a group good? Let’s discuss.
Some groups, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) groups, are built around learning and implementing specific skills.. When needed, some individuals slowly integrate into group therapy as their progress in individual therapy goes on.. It’s Cost-Effective: Group sessions can be significantly cheaper than individual therapy at times, particularly when treating certain conditions and groups .. Group therapy programs ensure that all participants can talk about their individual experiences, opinions, and beliefs without ridicule, retaliation, or disrespect from other group members or therapists.. Rather than choose between group or individual therapy, one may decide to participate in both group and individual therapy sessions.. Itdiffers from group to group, and many practices will offer more than one type of group therapy.. A closed group setting is typically limited to a core group of participants who are the only ones allowed in the therapy session.. A psychotherapist usually directs closed therapy, while public groups such as AA and NA may be guided by fellow participants, group leaders, individuals who are further in recovery, and sponsors.. Note that, although valuable, groups like AA and NA are primarily support groups and fellowships rather than group therapy options.. All in all, there are many different support options out there, ranging from group counseling to individual counseling to support groups and more.. Common types of group therapy include (but are not restricted to) psychoeducational group therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy groups, and skill building therapy groups.. For some people, therapy groups end up being their primary social group; many friendships made during group therapy end up lasting for a very long time.. Affordability : Therapy groups are often more affordable than individual therapy.. During a group therapy session, the session's group leader (who isusuallya licensed therapist) guides the members through an interactive therapy session, ensuring that all the participants take an active part in the session.
ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the meaning, requirements, techniques, types and problems needing counselling. Meaning of Counselling: It is the people in the organisation who are the most important and valuable asset. They have emotions, feeling and a tender heart. Sometimes emotions and feelings create problems and men and women could not overcome […]
The process of counselling begins with establishing relationship between counsellor and counsellee and taking into confidence the counsellee by the counsellor and allowing him to open his or her heart and after understanding the situation advising him to face the harsh realities of life and society boldly and building his confidence and paving way to make the best use of his strength by overcoming his weaknesses.. Counsellor: Any person can act as counsellor.. Any employee can face problem even the good and hard working employees can face problems because of certain emotions or hurt self respect.. Make himself available to help the counsellee.. The marital problems, financial problems, problems with children and other psychological issues need counselling.. The effective counselling needs counselling skills, complete information about the persons to be counselled i.e. the information relating to his motives; experience, weaknesses, strength, attitudes and behaviour should be collected before counselling.. Counsellor can help the counsellee if he cooperates with counsellor and open his heart to him, otherwise counselling becomes a difficult task.. Cooperative Counselling: This is a kind of counselling that can be done through extending full cooperation to the counsellee and makes him realize his mistakes relating to his behaviour and attitudes so that he himself will be back on the track and improve himself.. Some employees come across problems others do not.. Only a few are problem employees.. These problems can be removed from the employees.. The following are the problems that need counselling:. Counsellors should take these employees into confidence and know the problems and their causes and try to remove them.
Counseling process refers to events, characteristics, or conditions that occur during or as a result of the interaction between counselor and client. The therapeutic relationship that develops during counseling sessions is an example of counseling process; completing homework outside of session also constitutes an event that fits within counseling process. Process can refer to what …
Process can refer to what the counselor does with the client as well as how change occurs within the client.. Presumably, process influences outcome, although research has been unsuccessful at demonstrating consistent links between measures of process and measures of outcomes.. One of the key problems in process and outcome measurement is that while hundreds of process and outcome measures have been created, no consensus exists about what measures or how these measures should be employed in practice or research.. Responses to the 66 items are employed to produce scores on 17 scales that are grouped in four general areas of Client Attitudes and Behaviors, Counselor Attitudes and Behaviors, Counselor Characteristics, and Counseling Process and Outcome.. Other process scales more frequently employed in the counseling literature include the Expectations about Counseling scale, Counselor Rating Form, Counselor Effectiveness Scale, Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory, Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale, Personal Attributes Inventory, Counselor Evaluation Inventory, and Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.. While many process measures are employed primarily in research studies, both researchers and practicing counselors use outcome measures.. A corresponding set of problems to those found with process measures occurs with counseling outcome measures.
As counselors, it is incumbent upon us to identify human rights concerns and their impact, to uphold individual human rights and address the negative consequences associated with violating these rights.
Second, many counselors may not have a clear understanding of what human rights are beyond the rights that people know about, particularly if the rights directly impact them.. We are past and current members of the American Counseling Association’s Human Rights Committee (HRC) whose stated mission is to bring awareness to human rights and social issues that impact the counseling profession and to address barriers that impede human rights.. This first article provides a general background of human rights issues and its relevance to practitioners, whereas the second article is solely focused on human rights issues and counseling students and counselor training.. In 1948 the UN issued a document drafted by representatives from all regions of the world — The Universal Declaration of Human Rights — which for the first time set out fundamental human rights recognizing the inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights of all humans regardless of race, gender, nationality, religion, language, social status, place of birth or other factors (such as sexual orientation, which is not specifically mentioned in the declaration).. Because counselors are often on the front lines treating the mental health consequences of human rights violations in the lives of clients and students, we should have a clear understanding of our professional responsibilities as it pertains to human rights issues.. As counselors, it is incumbent upon us to identify human rights concerns and their impact, to uphold individual human rights and address the negative consequences associated with violating these rights.. As stated above, the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was originally adopted in 1948 and reinforces the ideals behind bettering our communities through endorsing fundamental human rights, understanding the mental health consequences of violating these rights and advocating.
Every profession is faced with difficulties, and so mental health professionals have their own fair share of barriers to deal with.
Every profession is faced with difficulties, and so mental health professionals have their own fair share of barriers to deal with and overcome from time to time.. Speaking of India in particular, where students of STEM i.e., Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics find it easier to source out various study programs as well as seek employment in comparison to a Psychology student or Mental Health Professional, it is a challenge for a counsellor to maintain equilibrium pertaining to their educational and professional growth.. At times, it is likely for a counsellor to be faced with situations wherein they may wish to go out of their way and provide a person with concrete answers to their problems by virtue of humanity.. Other than this, another issue that counsellors face is when a person expects to receive comfort at a personal level from them wherein they seek solace, or even affection – things that should rather be expected out of someone within a person’s personal or social group.. For example: if a person wishes to seek comfort from a counsellor after having inflicted physical harm over somebody, it would be difficult for the former to cater to the person’s emotional requirements.. That said, a counsellor is responsible for the stressors of those beyond oneself, wherein they put their professional front before their personal needs in order to help others.. Counsellors are assumed to be efficient at overcoming their own Stressors The world knows them as people who are professionals in the areas of emotional wellness and psychological well-being.. While undergoing stress, counsellors view their issues as an individual and not as a professional, which is why, while they may be doing great at their work front, dealing with their personal problems might be a big struggle for some and overcoming one’s worries could be extremely taxing and overwhelming at times.. Sharing how you feel is a big step towards taking care of yourself, which is why it is important that we make it a point to convey our concerns in the right manner to the right person at the right time to avoid emotional breakdown or stress.. To know more about challenges in counselling or other challenges indirectly faced by emotional wellness professionals, you may go through Volume I of this article: myths about counselling
Lisa D. Hawley, Todd W. Leibert, Joel A. Lane
In this study, we examined the relationship between various indices of socioeconomic status (SES) and counseling outcomes among clients at a university counseling center.. There is a robust relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and mental health (Goodman & Huang, 2001; Strohschein, 2005), a finding that researchers have consistently replicated (Adler, Epel, Castellazzo, & Ickovics, 2000; Kraus, Adler, & Chen, 2012; Muntaner, Eaton, Miech, & O’Campo, 2004; von Soest, Bramness, Pedersen, & Wichstrøm, 2012).. SES as a Variable of Study. Thus, in operationalizing SES as a variable of study, we collected commonly researched objective indices—namely educational attainment, household income and health insurance status, as well as subjective data including client perceptions of financial security and class level.. Also of interest was the degree to which the expectation of positive outcome through therapy was linked to SES and counseling outcome.. Second, we hypothesized that objective SES variables (e.g., education level, income, health insurance status) and subjective SES variables (e.g., perceived financial security, perceived SES) predicted counseling outcome.. Between January and April 2010, front desk staff at the training center provided new adult clients with the consent form and study measures, which included the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 (OQ; Lambert et al., 2003), one item from the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report (SAS-SR; Weissman & Bothwell, 1976), the Subjective Social Support (SSS) subscale of the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI; Blazer, Hybels, & Hughes, 1990), the Treatment Expectancy Scale (TES; Sotsky et al., 1991), and numerous demographic questions including gender, race, age, relationship status, reasons for entering counseling, income, educational attainment and health insurance status.. Table 2 displays the results, starting with objective SES variables (e.g., education level, income) and subjective SES variables (e.g., perceived financial security, perceived SES), followed by the two indicators of motivation (identified and external), as well as treatment expectancy and social support.. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test the second hypothesis that objective SES variables (e.g., education level, income, health insurance status) and subjective SES variables (e.g., perceived financial security, perceived SES) predicted counseling outcome.. In the third step, we entered psychological variables (subjective social support, treatment expectancy and client motivation) to test whether these variables accounted for additional outcome variance beyond that which SES variables explained.. Within the counseling literature, there are few studies that both empirically study subjective and objective measures, as well as examine SES measures with clinical outcomes in counseling.
Over the past decade, researchers have found that Bowlby’s attachment theory (1973, 1988) has important implications for counseling and psychotherapy (Cassidy & Shaver, 1999, Lopez, 1995; Lopez & Brennan, 2000; Mallinckrodt, 2000). Attachment theory is a theory of affect regulation and interpersonal relationships. When individuals have caregivers who are emotionally responsive, they are likely to develop a secure attachment and a positive internal working model of self and others.
Over the past decade, researchers have found that Bowlby ’s attachment theory (1973, 1988) has important implications for counseling and psychotherapy (Cassidy & Shaver, 1999, Lopez, 1995; Lopez & Brennan, 2000; Mallinckrodt, 2000).. Adult attachment anxiety is conceptualized as the fear of interpersonal rejection and abandonment , excessive needs for approval from others, negative view of self, and hyper-activation of affect regulation strategies in which the person over-reacts to negative feelings as a mean to gain others’ comfort and support (Mikulincer, Shaver, & Pereg, 2003).. Clinicians can help those with attachment anxiety and avoidance understand how past experiences with caregivers or significant others have shaped their coping patterns and how these patterns work to protect them initially but later contribute to their experiences of distress (Lopez, Mauricio, Gormley, Simko, & Berger, 2001; Wei, Heppner, & Mallinckrodt, 2003).. Unfortunately, perfectionism is associated with greater depressive symptoms (e.g., Chang, 2002, Hewitt & Flett, 1991).. Wei, Shaffer, Young, and Zakalik (2005) provided empirical evidence that those with attachment anxiety and avoidance can decrease their shame, depression, and loneliness through meeting their basic psychological needs for connection, competence, and autonomy.. Conversely, those with attachment avoidance are inclined to use emotional cutoff (i.e., a deactivation strategy in which the person tries to avoid negative feelings) strategy, which is related to increased distress (Wei, Vogel, Ku, & Zakalik, 2005).. Fourth, Mallinckrodt (2000) suggested providing counter-complimentary interventions when working with individuals with high attachment anxiety and avoidance.. That is, counseling intervention can focus on breaking clients’ old patterns.. For these individuals, the study confirmed that counter-complimentary interventions which enhances their comfort level of self-disclosing to others (i.e., a strategy to decrease their reluctance in self-disclosure and increase their closeness with others) is an important strategy to decrease their loneliness and future depression (Wei, Russell, & Zakalik, 2005).. In summary, attachment theory can be used to understand the development of coping patterns or relationship patterns and the underlying dynamics of a person’s emotional difficulties.. Clinicians not only can help those with high attachment anxiety and avoidance to modify their ineffective coping strategy, but also can help them understand the underlying unmet needs that are satisfied by their ineffective coping strategy and learn alternative ways to satisfy their psychological or emotional needs (e.g., a need to connection, competence, and autonomy).. The implications of attachment theory in counseling and psychotherapy.. Adult attachment, shame, depression, and loneliness: The mediation role of basic psychological needs satisfaction.